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Moscow Regional Center - branch of RTRN History. Past, Present, Future.
       Since XIX century many of scientists, engineers, inventors - enthusiasts have been working over the discovery, creation and further development of radio and television. May 7, 1895 considered to be the day of radio discovery, when the young scientist Popov A.S. has demonstrated a device for wireless transmission of radio signals. It is almost impossible to determine the exact date of television discovery. But, nevertheless in our country, October 1, 1931 is considered to be a birthday of national television.
       A widely known word "TELEVISION" for the first time was used as the technical term on an International congress in Paris in 1900 and then was fast spread among the specialists, and later in every day life.
       The first TV programs in Moscow were transmitted from small studio of a radio relay communication center. The received video signal was rather relative that time, not so sharp, but it was possible to distinguish a figure of a man and known subjects.
       At the end of 1934 TV transmissions become regular.
       In 1935 the plant in Leningrad named after Kositzkiy produced first TV receivers of B-2 type.
       At the end of 1936 an immense interest for television in our country has resulted a decision of the National Commissars Council to construct in Moscow a special TV radio station.. For construction of TV radio station the site in Shabolovka street was selected, where communication test station have been already situated and there was a 150 m metallic radio tower, constructed in 1922 under the project of the academician Shuhov V.G.

A general view of Shuhovskaya tower from Shabolovka street
A general view of Shuhovskaya tower from Shabolovka street.
Shuhovskaya tower  (colour photo at the night)
Shuhovskaya tower (colour photo at the night).
A general view of Shuhovskaya tower from Shabolovka street
A general view of Shuhovskaya tower from Shabolovka street.

       In the short period of time two buildings were constructed, in which 100 sq. meters studio, hardware, transmitters and different auxiliary equipment were placed. Transmitting TV antennas were mounted on top of Shuhov's tower.
       The first experimental air transmission from Shabolovka street took place on March 9, 1937, and on December 31, 1938 the Moscow TV Center (MTVC) was adopted in permanent operation and became a structural part of Moscow broadcasting and communication management.

A  technical building of 1-st Moscow TV center on Shabolovka street
A general view of Shuhovskaya tower from Shabolovka street.

       December 31, 1938 is considered the birthday of "Moscow Regional Center" - branch of RTRN.
       The 7/5 kW TV transmitter provided stable TV signal reception at a distance of 60 km. The video signal was transmitted on 49,75 MHz frequency, sound signal - on 52 MHz frequency.
       On October, 1940 the director of MTVC was assigned Bolshakov F.I.
       On June, 1941 with a beginning of the war, MTVC temporarily has stopped broadcasting, and it's equipment was evacuated in Sverdlovsk.
       Even before the end of war, in 1944, the activities on reconstruction of MTVC have begun.
       On May 7, 1945 ( this day is celebrated as Day of Radio) MTVC was the first in Europe to restored regular TV transmission.
       On March, 1946, just after an end of the war under the initiative of MTVC specialists, there was a Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers about the necessity of MTVC reconstruction with it's transformation on 625 lines standard.
       On November 7, 1948, MTVC started regular transmission on 625 lines, the power of a TV transmitter increased up to 15 kW.
       January 1, 1950, on the basis of the decree of the USSR Council of Ministers, MTVC again is put under responsibility of USSR Ministry of Communications.
       At the beginning of 50ies under the initiative of MTVC, the proposal was born to create in Moscow of new multiprogram TV center with a higher tower. This proposal was accepted by the Government and on July 15, 1955 the USSR Council of Ministers has signed the Decree 1271 " About Reconstruction of the Moscow TV Center ", defining it's further destiny.

A general view of Shuhovskaya tower metallical constructions (from inside)
A general view of Shuhovskaya tower metallical constructions (from inside).
A general view Shuhovskaya tower.
A general view Shuhovskaya tower.
A general view Shuhovskaya tower.
A general view Shuhovskaya tower.
A general view Shuhovskaya tower.
A general view Shuhovskaya tower.

       According to the Decree, the USSR Ministry of Communications in the period of 1955-1958 was to execute a complicated complex of activities on reconstruction of MTVC, based on the latest scientific achievements and updated television technology, and envisioning the creation of a hardware - studio complex for 11 studios, new powerful TV station with 4 powerful TV- and 6 radio broadcast transmitters, new tower not lower then 300 m for the installation of transmitting antennas.
       To perform this Decree, the first stage of MTVC renovation envisaged the construction of the second 600 sq. m studio on Shabolovka st., the second TV transmitter and installation of the second metallic tower 110 m high, was finished in 1957. The second TV program was launched in Moscow.

A general view of metallic towers  from Shabolovka in Moscow
A general view of metallic towers from Shabolovka in Moscow.
Main stages of MTVC designing and expansion

       Together with reconstruction on Shabolovka St., there is an intensive elaboration of engineering solutions of the second stage of MTVC reconstruction.
       To this time it is clear already, that the present site on Shabolovka St., is not capable of containing all technical facilities of a new TV complex, especially when the amount of complex equipment in preprojected proposals is considerably increased, also the tower is planned to be constructed not of metal, but from a reinforced concrete.
       Within 1956 -1959 a number of Decrees is issued by the USSR Council of Ministers and Mossovet Executive Committee, determining specific tasks on creation of a complex: a site, technical parameters, terms of designing and construction, the executors.
       On March 17, 1959 with a Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers 662-, the USSR Ministry of Communications on behalf of a State project institute (GSPI) is assigned as a general developer, responsible for designing of a technological part of the project, the architectural - construction part is entrusted for elaborating to "Mosproyekt" institute. "Glavmosstroy" is assigned as the general contractor.
       The detailed design statement on construction of a new TV tower elaborated by GSPI and "osproyekt" was approved on May 16, 1959 by Mr. Psuortsev N.D. - the Minister of Communication.
       Earlier, on January 30, 1956 Mossovet has assigned for the construction of TV tower a site on a Southwest part of Moscow, in the area, called "Cheryomushki". The surveys were conducted on a site, the construction certificate was composed. On March, 1959 the construction site was transferred in Ostankino, at first on territory of a Dzerzhinskiy park, then - on territory of the City Ostankino nursery forest.

Panoramas of construction of TV tower basis in Ostankino
Panoramas of construction of TV tower basis in Ostankino.

       On August 12, 1960 there was a Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers 879 " About measures on radio broadcasting and television logistics supply".
       In accordance with this Decree, the radio-transmitting part consisting of two TV transmitters (1 and 2 programs), three VHF FM radio broadcasting transmitters, a color TV transmitter "Igla", two towers with antenna-feeder devices are reorganized into Moscow TV Radio-broadcasting Station (MTRS) under the direction of the USSR Ministry of Communications.
       The TRS is acting as a customer on building of new powerful radio station in Ostankino.
       In 1960-1961, at the preliminary stage the "osproyekt" has partially executed the elaboration of an engineering design and number of working plans of the tower.
       Since April, 1961 the course of construction works was slowed down, and since July - practically ceased because of the arisen doubts about reliability of the tower basis, raised by the Russian Federation Ministry of Construction.

Fragments of erection of the concrete basements  in Ostankino
A view in vertical section of TV tower).
Fragments of erection of the concrete basements in Ostankino.

       On June, 1962 after a lot of examinations and discussions, the final solution about the reliability of tower basis was accepted.
       The final project of the tower was issued and approved by the customer on March 22, 1963. The authors of the project were: Nikitin N.V. - designer, Batalov L.I. and Burdin D.I. - architects.

Nikitin N.V
Nikitin N.V.

       Under this project the height of the tower was increased up to 520 m, the number of TV and radio programs was also increased. The equipment of radio links, mobile TV stations, radio-frequency voice communications, special services objects, meteorological complex are added on the tower.
       The construction of the tower lasted for 4 years. More then 40 design and research institutes, tens of construction organizations, nonstandard equipment manufacturing plants of different ministries and offices of the country have participated in it's creation. The basic contribution was made by the following institutes: GSPI, CNIIEP, "Electroproyect", trusts "Speczhelesobetonstroy", "Stalpromkonstrukciya" and many others.

A reinforcement of a concrete conical section of TV tower.
A beginning of erection of concrete shaft of TV tower.
Concrete shaft of TV towers raised up to an altitude of 300 m.
Metallic structure  of elevator well inside concrete shaft of the construction
Metallic structure of elevator well inside concrete shaft of the construction.

       November 5, 1967, on the eve of 50th anniversary of a Great October socialist revolution, the Act of State Commission was signed about the commissioning of the first part of tower construction. The Ostankino tower started the transmission of four TV- and three radio broadcasting programs. Powerful transmitters "Uragan"for channels 1 and 3, "Len" for TV channels 8 and 11 have ensured the stable reception of the programs apart 120 km from the tower.

Mounting of structures of steel antenna.
The upper zone of TV tower during in the process of construction
The upper zone of TV tower during in the process of construction.

       Till this day two stations for two months worked almost simultaneously on Shabolovka and in Ostankino, until all receiving antennas on the roofs of Moscow houses were turned toward Ostankino tower.

The scheme of the fifth level of TV transmitters hall in Ostankino.

       On July 30, 1968 the Moscow TV Radio-transmitting Station was reorganized in an All-union Radio Television Transmitting Station (ARTTS) of the USSR Ministry of Communications. The director was assigned Bolshakov F.I., chief engineer - Yulovskiy N.V.

Moscow Regional Center - branch of RTRN transmitters' general hall interior.
Moscow Regional Center - branch of RTRN transmitters' general hall interior.
Radio transmitters "Uragan" on 5-th level.
Radio transmitters "Uragan" on 5-th level.

       The construction of the tower prolonged till December 26, 1968 until the Act of State Commission was signed, about the commissioning of the second part of tower construction. In addition to available transmitters, the 5th transmitter "Ladoga" for channel 33 was installed together with three VHF FM TV transmitters of "Med" type. The 1st channel transmitter "Uragan" started the transmission of color television. The finishing activities on the 3 levels restaurant " the Seventh Sky " were finished, the first tourists have visited the tower.

The lower basis of tower  on a background of Tv transmitting Center.
The lower basis of tower on a background of Tv transmitting Center.
Restaurant "the Seventh Heaven", color film photo.
Restaurant "the Seventh Heaven", color film photo.

       In connection with the successful finishing of tower construction, the USSR Council of Ministers has issued the Decree about appellation to ARTTS of honor title: " of a name of 50th anniversary October revolution".
       For construction of TV tower many participants were marked by high government awards.
       The commissioned Ostankino TV tower during that time was not only a construction of a unique design, but the largest achievement of national science and engineering. Except transmitting of TV programs for a million-strong audience in Moscow and Moscow region, it fulfilled a lot of other duties of national standing. The complex of the radio-relay equipment, located on it, provided distribution of the state TV and radio broadcasting programs along the territory of the country taking into account time zones.
       The transmitting aerials and hardware, installed on the balconies, on the upper part of the tower provided unprecedented for those times capability of synchronous transmission and records of TV programs from 20 objects.

A general view of the upper zone of  TV tower  with antennas and meteorological equipment
A general view of the upper zone of TV tower with antennas and meteorological equipment.

       For the first time, thanks to the tower the Main Meteorological Center of country has received in it's disposal high-altitude meteorological observatory with an up-to-date complex of measuring equipment for synchronous measurement of atmospheric phenomena at 500 m altitude.
       After transition from a high-rise building on Kotelnicheskaya st. to Ostankino tower, the system of radio-frequency voice communication for the basic Ministries and offices has maid a snapping-back in volume and quality of communication.
       The planned special radio communication for the head of the State, government and operating bodies has shown excellent practical results and have stipulated it's extension in the first years of exploitation and, even built-up the height of the tower with the additional antenna up to 540 m.
       Naturally, the leaders of the project and creators of the tower could not anticipate all fields of it's application. Therefore further exploitation of tower proceeded under the conditions of permanent extension of it's functions.
       Soon there was a necessity in additional production space and supplementary facilities.
       The further initiator and follower on implementation of these problems became - Viacheslav Nikolayevich Misoulin, assigned by the new chief of ARTTS in November 16, 1978.
       Vyacheslav Misyulin had been held the post of the General Director of the ARTTS (later Main TV&BC Center) until January 2002.

       In 1982 a new 40 thousand cubic meters modern building was constructed near the tower with premises for excursion activity and conference hall for 800 visitors.

Main TV & BC Center Excursion body  building ) from videofilm
Moscow Regional Center - branch of RTRN Excursion body building ) from videofilm.

       In 1982, for maintenance of a power consumption and electrical power supply reliability of the tower, a full renovation of external electrical power supply system of the tower was done with 15 km cabling of a high-voltage power cable from Mosenergo. The tower has received the third independent source of electrical power supply.
       In 1982 a powerful TV transmitter "Tesla" for channels 33 have been installed on the tower and begun the transmission of the 5th Leningrad program for Moscow in a new ultra high frequency.
       The personnel of TV tower actively participated in preparation and realization of the Olympic 80. For transmission of the Olympic games, 8 low-powered TV transmitters and NN world television receiving - transmission system were installed on the tower.
       In the years of economic crisis, with the introduction of market economy in the country, ARTTS was able to preserve stability in the economy at the expense of well-timed measures on the extension of manufacturing base and deployment of new activities. During 1992-1998 the number of transmitted programs was increased: TV programs - from 5 till 15, VHF FM radio broadcasting programs - from 6 till 14. About 20 objects of radio telephone, truncking and paging radio communication, objects of radio-relay and space communication were installed on the tower. For implementation of these measures on tower, it was necessary to make considerable modifications of production facilities, to construct additional levels and outside balconies. On the agenda there was a problem of increasing of tower's height for the installation of additional transmitting antennas of new powerful transmitters.
       Three new TV transmitters for channels 43, 46, 38 are coming into service, the installation of new powerful TV transmitters (instead of existing low-powered) for channels 24, 49, 51 is planned, as well as the usage of new frequencies for Moscow.

A general view of the antenna part of  TV tower
A general view of the antenna part of TV tower.

       The High-altitude restaurant "the Seventh Sky" has changed completely. Full replacement of halls interior and engineering systems, together with a system of service and restaurant menu have given a new face to the restaurant.
       The new birth got the Shuhov tower executing only a role of a monument of the Soviet architecture, it's activity was stopped after construction of the Ostankino tower.
       In 1991 the top of tower was dismounted and a superstructure with transmitting antennas of 3 new transmitters working in new FM band frequency for Russia was installed overhead with the help of the helicopter.
       In 1991, ARTTS was managed by RF Ministry of Communications and on August 24, 1991 by the Decree of the President of Russia 85 it was renamed into Main Center of Radio Broadcasting and Television of Russian Federation (MAIN TV & BC CENTER).
       From the very beginning of exploitation of the tower the personnel of Ostankino tower successfully cooperates with a lot of manufacturing, research and other organizations, including similar towers in our country and abroad.

       "Moscow Regional Center" - branch of RTRN has entered especially fruitful public and international activity period, when became a full member of World Federation of Great Towers.
       The active international trade activities with numerous foreign corporations, concerns and associations conducted on "Moscow Regional Center" - branch of RTRN. We are opened for business cooperation with other allied organizations.

elebration in honour of 40th anniversary of Ostankino Tower.

Conference 21th of World Federation of Great Towers.

Ostankino TV tower in Digits and facts.

Parameters Data
1 Height of the tower 540m
2 Total height of the lower conical basis of the tower 63m
3 Height of concrete prestressed shaft of the construction 385,5m
4 Total weight of TV tower with basis 51 400t
5 Weight of construction without basis 32 000t
6 Width of the floor base of the main ring basis 9,5m
7 Depth of the main bases floor 3,5 - 4,6m
8 Low conic foundation of the construction is based on 10 bearings
9 Average diameter between leg-bearings 60m
10 Width of bearings in low section 0,5 - 1m
11 Diameter of reinforced concrete tube of the tower on 63m height 18m
12 Diameter of reinforced concrete tube in the upper part of construction between 311 and 385,5m 8,2m
13 Reinforced concrete tube of the construction was made of preliminary enforced reinforced concrete of mark 400
14 Ring sections of the towers tube are tighten by 149 cables
15 Total tension of 38mm diameter preliminary-enforced steel cables 10,8 thousand tons
16 Usable room area inside the tower Over 15 000m2
17 Total volume of rooms and high altitude constructions 70 000m3
18 Adopted designed speed of a wind on the height of a weather vane (10 m from ground) 25m/sec
19 Theoretical deviation of the towers top under max. figured wind speed About 12m
20 Theoretical possibility of wind speed appearance Over 50 years
21 Figured deviation of TV tower tubes axis at vertical under effect of a solar insolation 2,25m
22 Range of a stable receipt of TV signal 110 120km
23 Total number of elevators in the tower,passenger and high speed 7 units
4 units
24 Speed of elevators cabin movement 7 and 9m/s
25 Observation platform and restaurant the "Seventh Sky" already visited 10 mln. persons
26 Main observation platform is located on the height of 337m
27 Levels of restaurant of the "Seventh Sky" are on the elevation points 328, 331 and 334m
28 Speed of ring floors rotation in the restaurant 1 - 3 turns per hour
29 Total weight of steel constructions of the tower 4160t
30 Volume of reinforced concrete segments of construction 7574m3
31 Total time of construction 54 months
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